Does using a word processor affect a writer s style？ The medium usually does dosomething to the message after all， even if Marshall McLuhan s claim that the mediumsimply is the message has been heard and largely forgotten now. The question matters.Ray Hammond， in his excellent guide The Writer and the Word Processor （Coronet￡2.95 pp224）， predicts that over half of the professional writers in Britain and the USAwill be using word processors by the end of 1995. The best-known recruit is LenDeighton， from as long ago as 1968， though most users have only started since themicro-computer boom began in 1980.
Ironically word processing is in some ways psychologically more like writing inrough than typing， since it restores fluidity and provisionality to the text. The typist sdread of having to get out the Tippex， the scissors and paste， or of redoing the wholething if he has any substantial second thoughts， can make him consistently choose thesafer option in his sentences， or let something stand which he knows to be unsatisfactory or incomplete， out of weariness. In word processing the text is loosenedup whilst still retaining the advantage of looking formally finished.
This has， I think， two apparently contradictory effects. The initial writing canbecome excessively sloppy and careless， in the expectation that it will be corrected later.That crucial first inspiration is never easy to recapture though， and therefore， on theother hand， the writing can become over-deliberated， lacking in flow and spontaneity，since revision becomes a larger part of composition. However these are faults easier todetect in others than in oneself.
For most writers， word processing quite rapidly comes to feel like the ideal method（and can always be a second step after drafting on paper if you prefer）。 Most of thewriters interviewed by Hammond say it has improved their style （“immensely”， saysDeighton）。 Seeing your own words on a screen helps you to feel cool and detachedabout them.
Thus it is not just by freeing you from the labour of mechanical re-typing that aword processor can help you to write. One author （Terence Feely） claims it hasincreased his output by 400%. Possibly the feeling of having a reactive machine， whichappears to do things， rather than just have things done with it， accounts for this―yourslave works hard and so do you.
Are there no drawbacks？ It costs a lot and takes time to learn―“expect to loseweeks of work”， says Hammond， though days might be nearer the mark. Notoriously itis possible to lose work altogether on a word processor， and this happens to everybodyat least once. The awareness that what you have written no longer exists at all anywhere，is unbelievably enraging and baffling.
16. According to the first paragraph of the passage， what is the obvious change forprofessional writers in Britain and the USA？
(A) The style they are employing.
(B) The medium they are using.
(C) The way they are being recruited.
(D) The paper they are writing on.
17. Typing in the conventional manner, a writer may _____.
(A) choose to white more carefully
(B) make more mistakes
(C) become overcritical of his or her work
(D) have a lot of second thoughts
18. One effect of using a word processor may be that the ongoing revision of a text_____.
(A) is done with too little attention
(B) produces a sloppy effect
(C) is lacking in flow and spontaneity
(D) does not encourage one to pick up mistakes
19. It is claimed here that word processors create _____.
(A) a sense of power in the writer s mind
(B) a reluctance in the author to express himself or herself
(C) an illusion as if you were a servant of the machine
(D) a feeling of distance between a writer and his or her work
20. As far as learning to use a word processor is concerned, the author of the passage
mentions a number of drawbacks EXCEPT that _____.
(A) it takes time
(B) it is costly
(C) the user may rely too much on the machine
(D) the user may lose weeks of work
In almost all cases the soft parts of fossils are gone for ever but they were fittedaround or within the hard parts. Many of them also were attached to the hard parts andusually such attachments are visible as depressed or elevated areas， ridges， or grooves，smooth or rough patches on the hard parts. The muscles most important for theactivities of the animal and most evident in the appearance of the living animal arethose attached to the hard parts and possible to reconstruct from their attachments.Much can be learned about a vanished brain from the inside of the skull in which it waslodged.
Restoration of the external appearance of an extinct animal has little or noscientific value. It does not even help in inferring what the activities of the livinganimal were， how fast it could run， what its food was， or such other conclusions as areimportant for the history of life. However， what most people want to know about extinctanimals is what they looked like when they were alive. Scientists also would like toknow. Things like fossil shells present no great problem as a rule， because the hard partsare external when the animal is alive and the outer appearance is actually preserved inthe fossils.
Animals in which the skeleton is internal present great problems of restoration，and honest restorers admit that they often have to use considerable guessing. Thegeneral shape and contours of the body are fixed by the skeleton and by musclesattached to the skeleton， but surface features， which may give the animal its reallycharacteristic look， are seldom restorable with any real probability of accuracy. Thepresent often helps to interpret the past. An extinct animal presumably looked more orless like its living relatives， if it has any. This， however， may be quite equivocal. Forexample， extinct members of the horse family are usually restored to look somewhatlike the most familiar living horses―domestic horses and their closest wild relatives.It is， however， possible and even probable that many extinct horses were striped likezebras. Others probably had patterns no longer present in any living members of thefamily. If lions and tigers were extinct they would be restored to look exactly alike.No living elephants have much hair and mammoths， which are extinct elephants，would doubtless be restored as hairless if we did not happen to know that they hadthick， woolly coats. We know this only because mammoths are so recently extinct thatprehistoric men drew pictures of them and that the hide and hair have actually beenfound in a few specimens. For older extinct animals we have no such clues.
21. According to the passage, the soft part of fossilized animals _____.
(A) can always be accurately identified
(B) have usually left some traces
(C) can usually be reconstructed
(D) have always vanished without any trace
22. The muscles of a fossilized animal can sometimes be reconstructed because _____.
(A) they were preserved with the rest of the animal
(B) they were lodged inside the animal s skull
(C) they were hardened parts of the animal s body
(D) they were attached to the animal s skeleton
23. The reconstruction of a fossilized animal s external appearance is considered necessary in order to _____.
(A) satisfy popular curiosity
(B) answer scientific questions
(C) establish its activities
(D) determine its eating habits
24. The word “equivocal” (para. 3) means _____.
(A) equally important
(C) equally doubtful
25. The third paragraph of the passage deals with the difficulties of restoring the following fossilized animals EXCEPT _____.
(A) those which had complex internal structures
(B) those which had no external hard parts
(C) those which had fur-covered bodies
(D) those which had no living relatives
There is a basic hypothesis that the majority of serious motoring offences are derived fromaccidents， and there is nothing in the offender s personality or background that predisposes him tobreak the law. If an accident is a chance event that happens so quickly and suddenly that it is beyondanyone s control to prevent it， then it is clear that this hypothesis is disproved. For only about 14 percent of the 653 offences considered in a recent survey could possibly be called inadvertent accidentsin this sense， and even this estimate is stretching credulity to its limits. In the great majority of casesthe offences were largely of the offenders own making. In 11per cent of the 653 cases and 21 percent of 43 offenders who were interviewed there was evidence of selfish， and even ruthless，self-interest， but it was not possible to infer personality disturbance in more than 25 per cent of the653 and 39 per cent of the 43 offenders. Though the inferences with regard to personality traits maybe an overestimate in the interpretation of qualitative data， they could equally be an underestimate，since so very little was ever recorded about the offenders themselves. The lack of data is aconsequence of the almost total lack of interest in motoring offenders as persons.It must be assumed，therefore， in the absence of evidence to the contrary that the majority of serious motoring offenders considered in the survey were normal people， who succumbed to temptation when circumstanceswere favourable and it was expedient to take a chance， so perhaps there is something in the normalpersonality that predisposes a driver to break the law. Whatever it is， its presence is much moreevident in males than in females， since the analysis of the national statistics shows a predominanceof males over females of between 18：1 and 22：1. The real significance of these figures is hard toassess， because the relative proportions of each sex at risk are unknown. One research workerproduced a ratio of six males to one female from his sample of insurance policy holders， but this isalmost certainly an underestimate since many females―probably more than males―are likely to bedriving on someone else s policy. A ration of three to one is probably nearer to the real state ofaffairs. Females reached noticeable proportions only among the hit-and-run drivers， and there seemsto be some justification for calling this the ‘feminine offence. The difference between the sexes intheir relative propensity to break the law on the roads is important， because it shows that motoringoffenders have a characteristic in common with offenders in other fields of criminal activity， wheremales predominate to a marked degree. One motor insurance underwriter recently announced hisintention to offer discounts on premiums where the policy holder or the ’named driver was awoman.
The basic hypothesis is further disproved by the very high incidence， among theoffences studied， of failing to insure against third-party risks. Yet accidents brought tolight only a very small percentage of this kind of crime. Moreover， it could not possiblybe said that this， the most common of the serious offences， was brought about byprovidence. On the contrary， it can be regarded as a typical form of economic crime，which， although sometimes committed through inadvertence， is more usually quitedeliberate and calculated.
26. The word “hypothesis” (line 1) means _____.
(A) a wrong belief
(B) an unproved theory
(C) a demonstrable idea
(D) a fundamental law
27. Inadequate statistical information about the personalities of motoring offenders is largely the result of _____.
(A) the difficulty of interpreting the self-evident facts
(B) the inaccessibility of the police records
(C) scanty recorded evidence of the offenders themselves
(D) insufficient research into the recorded qualitative data
28. Women can sometimes get more favourable motoring insurance terms than men because statistically _____.
(A) they are much better at controlling a car
(B) they are smaller and more important
(C) they are less likely to commit grave offences
(D) they are more unwilling to take out policies themselves
29. It can be inferred from the passage that _____.
(A) women are unwilling to drive on someone else s policy
(B) women are more likely to be the hit-and-run drivers
(C) men are regarded as criminals in road accidents
(D) men are more likely to be insurance underwriters
30. A “third party” (para. 3) is essentially _____.
(A) any insured woman driver
(B) the driver of an insured car
(C) a normal policy-holder
(D) any other road-user
SECTION 3: TRANSLATION TEST (1)(30 minutes)
Directions： Translate thef ollowing passage into Chinese and write your version in thecorresponding sp ace in your ANS WER BOOKLET.
There is a growing number of economists who believe today s brutally tough labormarket is not a temporary American oddity. Falling wages， reduced benefits and risingjob insecurity seem to be increasingly entrenched features of the job scene across mostof Western Europe， the United States and other parts of the developed world. Thenumber of insecure freelance positions is rising （as are working hours） while stable jobswith good benefits are being cut. Laid-off workers are much less likely to be rehired bytheir old companies and have to find new jobs or turn to self-employment. Those whostill have jobs are working longer hours with little prospect of meaningful raises.
The new labor market is shaped by growing global competition， spurred by the riseof cheap manufacturers in China， India and Eastern Europe， and the price-choppingeffect of both the Internet and giant retailers led by Wal-Mart. These forces compelWestern companies to exercise a growing restraint on prices and labor cost. One thingglobalization clearly does is to exert a leveling effect on wages.
SECTION 4: TRANSLATION TEST (2)(30 minutes)
Directions： Translate thef ollowing passage into English and write your version in thecorresponding sp ace in your ANS WER BOOKLET.